Adolph MENZEL

(Breslau 1815 - Berlin 1905)

Portrait of Eduard Heinrich Kamke

Pencil, with stumping and heightened with touches of white, on prepared paper laid down on board.
Signed with initials and dated A. M. 51. at the lower right.
Inscribed Eduard Heinrich Kamke. / geb. 2/11 1806. gest. 24/6 1866. / gezeichnet von Menzel 1851. / Rosine Mathilda Kamke / geb. Heumann. / geb. 16/8 1827. gest. 1/3 1900 on a label formerly attached to the old backing board.
125 x 93 mm. (4 7/8 x 3 5/8 in.) at greatest dimensions.
Nothing is known of the sitter of this portrait, Eduard Heinrich Kamke (1806-1866). Menzel generally produced portraits of members of his own family or of friends and their families, and otherwise seems only rarely to have accepted portrait commissions. As he wrote in a letter of 1850, when he was thirty-five years old, ‘It is not my job to do portraits of all and sundry to suit the public taste or to ape fashion.’ Furthermore, as one modern scholar has noted, ‘For Menzel…the portrait with its inevitable focus on the face or indeed the social mask was at best a secondary genre. Not that his oeuvre is devoid of superb portraits…the best of which…are of men and women who mattered to him personally.’

The earliest known owner of this drawing was the toy manufacturer, merchant and prominent art collector Max (Maximilian) Minkowski (c.1851-1924), who lived in the East Prussian city of Königsberg (today Kaliningrad in Russia). He assembled a fine collection of furniture, oriental rugs and French art, and also served as French consul in Königsberg. Minkowski, whose younger brother Hermann was a noted mathematician, died childless, and his collection, including the present sheet, was dispersed at auction in Berlin in 1925. 
 
Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel began his career working in his father’s lithography shop in Breslau (now Wroclaw in Poland) and later in Berlin, where his family moved in 1830. A brief period of study at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin in 1833 seems to have been the sum total of his formal training, and he is thought to have taught himself how to paint. At the outset of his career he worked as an illustrator, his activity in this field perhaps best exemplified by a series of some four hundred designs for wood engravings produced to accompany Franz Kugler’s History of Frederick the Great, published in instalments between 1840 and 1842. During the late 1840’s and 1850’s he was occupied mainly with a cycle of history paintings illustrating the life of Frederick the Great. In 1861 Menzel received his most important official commission, a painting of The Coronation of King William I at Königsberg, on which he worked for four years. In the following decade, his lifelong interest in scenes of contemporary life culminated in what is arguably his masterpiece as a painter; the large canvas of The Iron Rolling Mill, painted between 1872 and 1875 and immediately purchased by the National-Galerie in Berlin. The last three decades of his career saw Menzel firmly established as one of the leading artists in Germany, a prominent figure in Prussian society and the recipient of numerous honours including, in 1898, elevation to the nobility. In the late 1880’s he began to abandon painting in oils in favour of gouaches, although old age meant that these in turn were given up around the turn of the century. Yet he never stopped drawing in pencil and chalk, able always to find expression for his keen powers of observation. A retrospective exhibition of Menzel’s work, held at the National-Galerie in Berlin a few weeks after the artist’s death in 1905, included more than 6,400 drawings and almost 300 watercolours, together with 129 paintings and 250 prints. A passionate and supremely gifted draughtsman, Menzel was equally adept at watercolour, pastel, gouache and chalk. He was also able to draw with either hand, although he seems to have favoured his left. An immensely prolific artist (over four thousand drawings by him, together with 77 sketchbooks, are in the collection of the Nationalgalerie in Berlin alone), it is said that Menzel was never without a sketchbook or two in his pocket. His friend Paul Meyerheim described the artist’s appearance: ‘In his overcoat he had eight pockets, which were partially filled with sketchbooks, and he could not comprehend that there are artists who make the smallest outings without having a sketchbook in their pocket…an especially large pocket was installed…to hold a leather case, which held a pad, a coupe of shading stumps and a gum eraser.’ Menzel was widely admired as a draughtsman by his contemporaries, both in Germany and abroad, and Edgar Degas, for one, is known to have owned at least one drawing by him.

Provenance

Consul Max Minkowski, Königsberg
His posthumous sale, Berlin, Rudolph Lepke, 12-15 May 1925, lot 242 (sold for 528 Marks)
Dr. Jansen, Berlin
His posthumous sale, Berlin, Internationales Kunst-und-Auktions Haus, 8-9 December 1933, lot 77 (sold for 200 Reichsmarks)
Anonymous sale, Berlin, Villa Grisebach, 25 November 2015, lot 213
Private collection.
 

Literature

H. C. Krüger, ‘Vorwort’, in Berlin, Rudolph Lepke’s Kunst-Auction-Haus, Kunstsammlung M. Minkowksi, Königsberg i Pr., 12-15 May 1925, unpaginated, illustrated pl.11.
 

Additional Works

 

Adolph MENZEL

Portrait of Eduard Heinrich Kamke