(Breslau 1815 - Berlin 1905)

A Farmstead near Kassel

Pencil on buff paper.
Signed with initials and dated A. M. 47 along the right edge.
128 x 202 mm. (5 x 8 in.)
Between August 1847 and March 1848 Adolph Menzel lived and worked in Kassel, in the province of Hesse; the home town of his dear friend Carl Heinrich Arnold. There he was engaged on a large historical cartoon of The Entry of Sophie of Brabant and her son, later Landgrave Heinrich, into Marburg in 1247, commissioned by the Kunstverein, or Art Society, of Kassel, through the auspices of Arnold. During this period, Menzel also produced a number of pencil studies of local Hessian farmers and peasants, as well as several landscapes. 

Drawn on a page from a sketchbook, the present sheet may be associated stylistically with a number of pencil drawings by Menzel of views in Kassel and the surrounding area. These include two sheets now in the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin; a View of Houses and Gardens in Kassel, dated 1847, and a Farmhouse near Kassel, dated 1848. Also comparable is an 1847 drawing of A Spindly Tree in Kassel, of similar dimensions to the present sheet and thus possibly from the same sketchbook, in the Karen B. Cohen collection, New York.

As Susanne van Falkenhausen has noted of the Kassel drawings of 1847-1848, ‘The pencil Menzel used for these landscape-sketches is a coarser, softer one than that employed for studies made at the same time…Menzel’s handling of his soft pencil is energetic and broad. The surface details are increasingly treated in summary fashion. Menzel wanted to handle the surfaces and the impression of space tonally – in black and white, but nevertheless in a ‘painterly’ way.’


Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel began his career working in his father’s lithography shop in Breslau (now Wroclaw in Poland) and later in Berlin, where his family moved in 1830. A brief period of study at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin in 1833 seems to have been the sum total of his formal training, and he is thought to have taught himself how to paint. At the outset of his career he worked as an illustrator, his activity in this field perhaps best exemplified by a series of some four hundred designs for wood engravings produced to accompany Franz Kugler’s History of Frederick the Great, published in instalments between 1840 and 1842. During the late 1840’s and 1850’s he was occupied mainly with a cycle of history paintings illustrating the life of Frederick the Great.

In 1861 Menzel received his most important official commission, a painting of The Coronation of King William I at Königsberg, on which he worked for four years. In the following decade, his lifelong interest in scenes of contemporary life culminated in what is arguably his masterpiece as a painter; the large canvas of The Iron Rolling Mill, painted between 1872 and 1875 and immediately purchased by the National-Galerie in Berlin. The last three decades of his career saw Menzel firmly established as one of the leading artists in Germany, a prominent figure in Prussian society and the recipient of numerous honours including, in 1898, elevation to the nobility. In the late 1880’s he began to abandon painting in oils in favour of gouaches, although old age meant that these in turn were given up around the turn of the century. Yet he never stopped drawing in pencil and chalk, able always to find expression for his keen powers of observation. A retrospective exhibition of Menzel’s work, held at the National-Galerie in Berlin a few weeks after the artist’s death in 1905, included more than 6,400 drawings and almost 300 watercolours, together with 129 paintings and 250 prints.

A passionate and supremely gifted draughtsman, Menzel was equally adept at watercolour, pastel, gouache and chalk. He was also able to draw with either hand, although he seems to have favoured his left. An immensely prolific artist (over four thousand drawings by him, together with 77 sketchbooks, are in the collection of the Nationalgalerie in Berlin alone), it is said that Menzel was never without a sketchbook or two in his pocket. His friend Paul Meyerheim described the artist’s appearance: ‘In his overcoat he had eight pockets, which were partially filled with sketchbooks, and he could not comprehend that there are artists who make the smallest outings without having a sketchbook in their pocket…an especially large pocket was installed…to hold a leather case, which held a pad, a coupe of shading stumps and a gum eraser.’ Menzel was widely admired as a draughtsman by his contemporaries, both in Germany and abroad, and Edgar Degas, for one, is known to have owned at least one drawing by him.


Anonymous sale, Berlin, Villa Grisebach, 26 November 2014, lot 198

Private collection.


Additional Works



A Farmstead near Kassel